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The cathedral church of Manchester 

lomas Merkinj 

' From 
1114 Citizens Bldf. 

£i«v eland « 



Lit, Li y 

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WITH 43 



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I have to acknowledge with my sincerest thanks the help I 
received locally in compiling this little volume. 

The Dean of Manchester was good enough to offer to read 
the proof-sheets, and has made various suggestions and addi- 
tions which have done much to improve it. The sheets have 
also had the benefit of Canon Hicks' revision. 

The photographic illustrations, with the exception of two by 
Mr. W. H. Bowman of Manchester, were taken by myself, and 
1 have also to thank the Dean for permission to photograph in 
all parts of the church. 

Mr. Walter T. Browne, Governor of Chetham's Hospital and 
Library, gave me every facility for examining and photograph- 
ing the building, and supplied me with much valuable informa- 
tion. He also carefully revised the proof-sheets of the latter 
portion of the book. 

Mr. J. T. Chapman, of Albert Square, placed his dark-room 
at my disposal, so that I was able to develop my negatives on 
the spot, and make second exposures when necessary. 

Lastly, Mr. Thackeray Turner, Secretary of the Society for 
the Protection of Ancient Buildings, lent me sundry papers and 
• reports dealing with Chetham's Hospital and Library. The 
^ kind assistance thus received has made my task an easy one, 

v^ and has materially added to the accuracy of the volume. 



tX September 1901. 




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Chapter I.— History of the Building 3 

Chapter II.— The Exterior 13 

Chapter III. — The Interior 23 

Chapter IV. — Short History of the Parish and Diocese . 55 

Chetham's Hospital and Library 63 

Index 87 

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Manchester Cathedral from the South . Frontispiece 

The Arms of the See Title Page 

Manchester Cathedral from the North-East 2 

The Cathedral from the West 3 

View across the Choir from the Ely Chapel about 1850 ... 8 
Windows on the South Side . . . , . .12 

The West Porch 14 

The South Porch 16 

The Ely Chapel 18 

Ncrth Side of the Nave 20 

The Choir, looking East 22 

The Choir Screen 23 

View across the Nave, looking North-East ..... 25 

The Inner South Aisle of the Nave 2S 

The Tower Arch 30 

Screen of the Jesus Chapel 3 1 

Entrance to the Chapter House 32 

The South Choir Aisle 33 

Screen of the Lady Chapel 35 

Statue of Sir Humphrey Chetham ....... 36 

Interior of North Doorway . . . . 39 

View across the Nave, looking North- West . . . . 40 

The Choir, looking West 42 

Desk Ends in the Choir Stalls 43 

Choir Stalls, North Side 44 

The Gordon Memorial Window 51 

The Nave from the West 54 

The Hall, Chetham's Hospital 62 

Chetham's Hospital from the South-East 63 

The North Gallery of the Cloister 65 

The College Gateway 68 

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Corridor and Entrance to the Hall ....... 69 

The Cloister 70 

Recess in the Hall 72 

West Side of the Cloister 74 

Staircase leading to Cloister Gallery 75 

Cloister Gallery, North Side 76 

Chetham's Library, formerly the Dormitory 77 

The Warden's Room, now the Reading Room ..... 79 

The Reading Room, East Side 82 

The Cloister, West Walk 83 

Plan of Chetham's Hospital 85 

Plan of Manchester Cathedrai end 

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Photo \\\V. H. Bowman.] 





In the minds of most Englishmen the name of Manchester 
calls up the image of a vast city that, with the borough of 
Salford, which, though municipally distinct, yet is topographi- 
cally united with it, contains a population of about three 
quarters of a million of inhabitants. And it is, moreover, 
generally supposed that Manchester is entirely of modern 
growth — a collection of mills, and warehouses, and shops ; 
yet, if anyone pauses for a moment to consider, the name 
itself suggests that the foundation of the city must date 
back from the time of the Roman occupation of the island. 
It has been, and not unreasonably, supposed that it was 

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a British stronghold before the soldiers of Agricola took 
possession of it. Certain it is that it was occupied by 
Roman troops, and it is said that they made their summer 
camp near the spot where the building that is the subject of 
this book now stands, hard by the junction of the little 
stream of the Irk with the larger river Irwell. In those 
early days these streams in all probability ran bright and 
clear through broad meadow lands, and were crossed by 
bridges of very ancient construction. The remains of one 
such bridge have long been known to exist, and have on 
more than one occasion been uncovered. 

The Irk now runs through a tunnel, and discharges its 
waters into the grimy, sluggish stream of the Irwell, which 
divides Manchester from Salford, and runs between the 
Exchange Station of the London and North-Western Railway 
and the cathedral church of the new diocese created in 1847. 

Many Roman coins, principally those of Nero, Vitellius, 
Vespasian, Domitian, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and 
Constantine, have been found at various times in the course 
of digging the foundations of houses. 

What befell Manchester when the Romans left Britain we 
do not know. That Paulinus preached here is highly prob- 
able; that Ine, King of the West Saxons, resided here with 
his Queen Ethelburga about 690 is recorded ; that, like many 
other places not far distant from the seaboard, it was 
ravaged by the Danes is certain. King Edward the Uncon- 
quered, in 923, sent troops to repair its walls and garrison 
the town. 

No picturesque legends about the foundation of the 
original Church of St. Mary which stood near the site of the 
present cathedral have come down to us. All we know is, 
that two wood-built churches are mentioned in Domesday 
Book as standing either in the town or the parish, one of them 
dedicated to St. Mary, the other to St. Michael. 1 The former 
was probably a predecessor of the present building, which 
is dedicated jointly to St. Mary, St. George, and St. Denys, 
though not on the same site. But of any Norman church 
of St. Mary not a trace is left, nor are there any remains 
of thirteenth century work visible in the church as we see it 

1 It states that the churches of St. Mary and St. Michael hold one carucate 
(that is, about 100 acres) of land quit of all taxes save the Danegelt. 

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to-day. Various examples of thirteenth and fourteenth century 
work, however, have been found in the walls of the church 
and in the western tower at different times during repairs 
and restorations. 

William the Conqueror conferred the lands between the 
Mersey and the Kibble on Roger of Poictou, who granted 
the Manor of Manchester to the Gresley family ; Thomas 
Gresley, Baron of Manchester, granted a charter to the 
townspeople of Manchester in 1301. Under these early 
barons the church was held successively by about fifteen 
rectors, among whom may be mentioned William de la 
Marcia (1284), who became Bishop of Bath and Wells in 
1292 /Walter Langton, who was appointed Rector of Man- 
chester, and also Keeper of the Great Seal by Edward I. in 
1292, and was consecrated Bishop of Lichfield in 1296, but 
retained his rectory for three years after his consecration ; John 
de Verdun or Everden (13 13), who became Dean of St. PauPs 
in 1323. Meanwhile, the manor had passed from the Gresleys 
to the De laWarres; theiast of their family became a priest, 
and appointed himself Rector of Manchester in 1373. He 
was a liberal benefactor to the church, and in order that 
there should be a suitable body of clergy to look after the 
spiritual welfare of the town, he endowed the church as a 
collegiate institution, obtaining the requisite charter from 
Henry V. in 1422. The college consisted of a warden, eight 
fellows in priests' orders, four deacons, and six boy choristers. 

The old baronial hall was granted to the newly appointed 
body as a place of residence. This was largely modified to 
suit the requirements of its new inmates, and the church itself 
was gradually reconstructed. Hence we find the church built 
in the Perpendicular style, a style that has been imitated in the 
many additions that have been made to the building since 
it was raised to cathedral rank in 1847. So quickly does 
the smoke-laden atmosphere of Manchester discolour the 
stone, that in a very few years after their erection the new 
parts of the church match in colour the older parts of the 
building, and the passer-by who gives but a casual glance 
at the cathedral would be surprised to learn how much of 
its structure dates from the nineteenth century. At the 
present time, 1901, the only obviously new part is the western 
porch, but the north and south porches, the Fraser Chapel on 

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the south side of the choir, the south-west corner of the 
building, as well as the tower, are all modern additions or 
reconstructions, and much of the exterior has been recased 
with stone. The residence of the warden and fellows, much 
modified at subsequent dates, may still be found on the 
north side of the church, on the other side of a road that 
skirts the churchyard. It is now known as Chetham's 
Hospital and Library ; for fuller information about this build- 
ing the reader is referred to the latter part of this volume. 

No sooner had the first warden, John Huntington, been 
appointed, than he set to work to enlarge and beautify the 
collegiate church. 

The oldest part of the church is the arch leading irtto the 
Lady Chapel, which, with its responds, has more resemblance 
to the Decorated than to the Perpendicular style. . This arch 
was accurately restored some twenty-five or thirty years ago. 
The rebus of Sir John Huntington, the first warden, who 
was appointed in 1422, renders it probable that this part 
of the church was largely reconstructed by him. While he 
was warden, 142 2- 145 8, the choir and its aisles were rebuilt, 
and the chapter house built. Under successive wardens the 
work of reconstruction was carried on, and occupied about a 
hundred years. The third warden, Ralph Langley ( 1 465-148 1 ), 
is said to have completed the nave ; much work was done 
during the wardenship of James Stanley II. (1485-1509), after- 
wards Bishop of Ely, for the chapel of the Holy Trinity was 
founded by W. Radcliffe in 1498 ; the Jesus Chapel, now the 
vestry and library, was founded by Richard Beswick in 1506; 
the Hulme Chapel, now destroyed, which formerly projected 
to the south from the eastern part of the south wall of the 
Jesus Chapel, was founded by Ralph Hulme in 1507; the St. 
James' Chantry or Ducie Chapel was built in the same year ; 
and the choir stalls were erected by the warden himself in 
1508. In this year also W. Galley built St. George's Chapel. 
James Stanley is also recorded to have built the double entrance 
into the chapter house. The Derby and Ely Chapels on the 
north side are of rather later date ; in the latter the ex-warden, 
James Stanley II., then Bishop of Ely, was buried. This 
chapel was built by Sir John Stanley in 1515. In 1518 the 
eighth warden, George West (151 8- 1535) is recorded to have 
built the Lady Chapel, but this work was probably a recon- 

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struction rather than a fresh building; the windows that we 
see in it now are eighteenth century work, but probably are 
imitations of those that previously existed in this chapel, and 
their style indicates a considerably earlier date than 15 18. 
Indeed, their tracery resembles fourteenth century work. It 
will be noticed from the dates just given that the church was 
finished not long before the Reformation. 

Up to 1 541 Manchester belonged to the diocese of Lich- 
field, but Henry VIII. then transferred it to the newly 
founded see of Chester. 

The college was dissolved by Edward VI., who bestowed its 
lands on the Stanley family. Queen Mary re-established 
the college and gave back its lands, with the exception of 
the domestic buildings, which still remained in the hands 
of the Earls of Derby. During the time of the Civil Wars 
the church suffered in common with many other ecclesi- 
astical buildings. 

Richard Heyrick, who had been warden since 1636, was 
deprived of his office in 1646, but was reinstated in 1660. 
Some negotiations had been entered into for the sale of 
the domestic buildings to the trustees under the will of 
Humphrey Chetham, but the sale was not completed until 
after the Restoration, when they became the property of 
the feoffees of the Chetham Hospital and Library. 

Subsequently the church shared the same fate as befell 
most ecclesiastical buildings during the eighteenth century, viz., 
neglect and injudicious repairs. But it was left to the early 
part of the nineteenth century to work the greatest havoc 
on the building. A thorough process of repair, or " beauti- 
fying " as it was then called, was set on foot in the year 
1815. Galleries were erected in the nave, the various 
chapels outside the nave aisles were thrown into the main 
building by the removal of the screens which separated them 
from the north and south aisles, so that from that time the 
western half of the church has had double aisles on either 
side of the nave proper. But worse than this, the whole 
interior was covered with Roman cement, and that this might 
adhere more firmly to the stone-work, the walls themselves 
and the pillars of the main arcade of the nave and the 
clerestory walls were hacked about in the most shameful way. 
In this condition the church remained for many years. When 

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the new see of Manchester was erected in 1847, this church 
was chosen as the cathedral church of the diocese, and before 
long proposals were made to rebuild or enlarge it, as it was 
felt by many that it lacked the dignity and size of the old 
cathedral churches, and, indeed, suffered in comparison with 
many of the old abbey churches that existed in England, some 

From Winkles' " Cathedrals:' 

of which have since that time been raised to cathedral rank. 
Queen Victoria visited Manchester for the first time in 185 1, 
and to commemorate her visit, Canon Parkinson suggested 
the rebuilding of the church, and himself headed the sub- 
scription list with a donation of ^1000, but the proposal 
did not meet with much favour. 

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At this time the municipal seats at the west end . were 
enclosed by a glass screen; above them was the Chetham 
gallery, as it was called, its back occupied by the organ and 
choristers, its front by the schoolboys of Chetham's Hospital. 
The organ had previously stood on the screen beneath the 
choir arch, but had been removed to the west for a musical 
festival held in 1828. This old organ loft was then converted 
into a pewed gallery, intended for the use of the Chetham 
feoffees, but was usually occupied by the officers of regiments 
quartered in Manchester. 

In 1858 some repairs, external and internal, were carried out, 
and shortly after this J. E. Gregan, architect, and David 
Bell, builder, recommended the rebuilding of the tower. 
Their advice was taken, the old tower was demolished, and 
a new tower was designed by J. P. Holden. On 4th August 
1864 the foundation stone of the new tower was laid by 
the Bishop, Dr. Prince Lee. In this ceremony, among others, 
the present Dean of Manchester, Dr. Maclure, took part, acting 
as chaplain to the High Sheriff, Sir J. P. Kay Shuttleworth, Bart. 
The tower was nearly four years in building, and was dedicated 
on Whitsunday 1868. 

In 1872 the Dean, Dr. Cowie, and the canons proposed that 
a new cathedral church should be built on a new site, but 
this plan met with little favour. Ten years passed away and 
then Mr. George Milner and Mr. (afterwards Sir) John William 
Maclure, churchwardens, and Mr. Thomas Lings, comptroller, 
advocated a thorough restoration of the existing church ; plans 
were prepared by Mr. Crowther, architect ; a meeting was called 
to consider the matter, and it was resolved to accept and carry 
out these plans. The roof of the nave was repaired, the 
old bosses being preserved, the galleries were removed, and 
it was decided to clear off the Roman cement from the 
pillars and walls, but it was found that the stone-work beneath 
had been so much mutilated, that it was resolved to rebuild 
the main arcade of the nave and the clerestory. 

Various donors undertook to defray the cost of rebuilding 
the different bays. A muniment room containing the cele- 
brated parish registers mentioned by Macaulay, was built in 
memory of Alderman Graves by his son, and the baptistery, in 
memory of Thomas Chesters, by his son. 

The Derby Chapel was re-roofed. The Earl of Derby, not- 

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withstanding the agreement made in 1774 by which the 
chapel was handed over to the church on condition that 
the Earls of Derby should no longer be required to keep 
it in repair, generously contributed ^1000 towards this work. 
The choir roof was renewed in English oak, but the bosses 
and carved angels were boiled in oil and replaced. Fortunately 
the Roman cement could be removed from the walls of the 
choir more easily than from the nave, and the old stone- 
work was allowed to stand. 

The south porch was erected by James Jardine in 1891 ; 
the north porch was built as a memorial to James Craven 
by his children in 1888. The west or Victoria porch was 
built in 1900 by subscription raised by the present Dean. 

The conical roof of the octagonal chapter house is modern ; 
the chapel to the east of it was built by his widow as a 
memorial to Dr. James Fraser, the second Bishop of Man- 
chester, who died in 1885. 

At the present time, 1901, further building operations are 
being carried on in the yard on the south side of the church, 
a new and larger chapter house and vestries being in course 
of erection. 


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The exterior of the Cathedral Church of Manchester is by 
no means imposing. The traveller who reaches the city by 
the London and North-Western Railway and alights at the 
Exchange Station, will see fronting him what appears to be a 
large parish church with a western tower. Its walls are grimy 
with the smoke of the city, and although the building occupies 
a good site, open on every side save the east, with a large 
churchyard stretching out on the north and south sides of 
it, yet few of those who see it would stay their steps to 
walk round the building or enter it by the south porch, un- 
less they had been previously told that this parish church, 
as it seemed to them, and as in a certain way it is, is also the 
Cathedral Church of Manchester, and that its interior is both 
impressive as a whole, and contains detail work of the highest 

Our examination of the exterior may well begin with the most 
recent addition to the church — the western porch — only 
lately finished and still showing the colour of the stone 
fresh from the carver's hands. Whether this addition is an 
improvement to the general appearance of the building or not 
is open to question. To some, among them the writer, it 
appears that the porch takes away from the appearance of 
height in the tower, much as the Galilee Chapel at Durham, 
beautiful as it is in its details, is an excrescence detracting 
from the effect of the western front of St. Cuthbert's Cathedral 
Church. Moreover, the single crocketed turret that rises 
from the south-west corner of the porch proper gives it a 
one-sided appearance, which is somewhat to be regretted, as 
with this exception the porch and its lower flanking chambers 
is symmetrical, as indeed is the church itself in its main 
features, turret answering to turret, and window to window, 
porch to porch. The carving on the western porch is 
elaborate and carefully executed, and if, as must necessarily 
be the case owing to the conditions under which nineteenth 

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century carving was executed, it lacks the freedom that is so 
great a charm in old work, it is more in accordance with 
the general style of the church, and is characteristic of its own 

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date. This porch was designed by Mr. Basil Champneys, 
who has succeeded in training carvers to carry out his designs 
in an admirable manner. A verbal description of the porch 
is hardly needed, as the illustration on the opposite page will 
show the reader its character. On either side of the porch is 
a chamber rising to about the same height as the spring of the 
arch of the doorway ; each of these is flat-roofed, its wall ter- 
minates in a pierced battlemented parapet, and is lighted by 
two rectangular-headed windows facing west. To the south 
and north of these two chambers respectively, are iron gates 
and flights of steps giving access to the churchyard. 

Ascending the southern flight we find before us the west ends 
of the two south aisles of the church ; the roof of the inner one 
slopes slightly down from the clerestory wall, and the outer one 
rises into a very obtuse-angled gable. The west end of the inner 
or true aisle is original, but the outer aisle was extended two bays 
westward at the time of the recent restoration. The windows of 
the church, though all or nearly all of Perpendicular character, 
are not all alike, as may be seen by examining the illustrations ; 
but in most of them the hood moulding after following the 
curve of the arch at the head of the window, is brought down in 
a vertical line for a short distance beside the lower part of the 
window. Most of the windows have four lights, but there are 
some exceptions, which will be duly noticed as we pass by 
them. To begin with, the west window of the outer south 
aisle has five lights. On turning round the south-west corner of 
this aisle we find the south porch projecting from the second 
bay. The porch itself consists of two bays, and has two stories. 
The lower story of the porch proper is lighted by two two-light 
windows on the western side, the upper story by two windows 
on the western and southern faces, and by one on the eastern face. 
Beneath the windows on the south side the following inscrip- 
tion may be read : — 

To the honour and Glory of God and in thankful acknowledgement of 

many mercies this porch is erected by James Jardine 
of Manchester and Alderley Edge in the year of our Lord MDCCCXCI. 

An octagonal stair turret surmounted by a crocketed pyra- 
midal termination stands at the south angle of the inner 
bay on the eastern side. The whole of this porch is elabor- 
ately carved, as will be seen from the illustration. The next 

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two bays of the south aisle project beyond the general line 
of the south wall of the church. The walls of this are 
finished by a pierced battlemented parapet similar to that 


which runs round the south porch. The windows in these 
two bays are alike, but the next two in the south wall 
have five lights, and differ from the last two in their shape 

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and tracery (see illustration, p. 12). To the south of the 
church about this point stands a sun-dial, shown in the 
illustration. The three next bays belong to what was formerly 
known as the Jesus Chapel. In the westernmost of these 
there is a doorway to give room for which the sill of the 
window is placed at a higher level than the sills of the other 
windows. The tracery of these windows differs from the 
preceding two. From the easternmost of the three bays of 
the Jesus Chapel formerly projected the Hulme chantry. To 
the east of the Jesus Chapel stands the octagonal chapter house ; 
three of its sides contain windows of a pattern differing from 
any of these already mentioned. From within the parapet, 
which is not battlemented, rises a rather steep pyramidal roof. 
This is modern. Whether the original roof was of this form or 
not is not known, but the modern roof is a distinctly agreeable 
feature. To the east of the chapter house is another window 
in the south wall, and then we come to the Fraser Memorial 
Chapel, which forms the south-east angle of the church. This 
has a four-light window in its south and a three-light window 
in its eastern wall. Before examining the east end of the 
church we may remark that the clerestory wall is terminated 
by a pierced battlemented parapet-^a modern addition — 
and that the pattern is slightly different on either side of the 
octagonal turret which rises from the junction of the nave 
and choir. The parapet that runs along the south wall of 
the chapel of St. Nicholas, again, differs from that which runs 
along the other walls on the south side of the church. 

The east window of the south choir aisle has five lights; 
passing this we come to the Lady Chapel. This is exceed- 
ingly small, projecting only some eighteen feet to the east of 
the aisle walls. It has two bays, each lit by a small two-light 
window . on either side. Against the centre of the eastern 
face rises a buttress, on either side of which is a four-light 
window. As already mentioned in Chapter I. the Lady 
Chapel windows are eighteenth century work, probably copies 
of the original windows, and have tracery of Decorated 

Beyond the Lady Chapel is the window of the north choir 
aisle; and beyond this again the eastern termination of the 
Derby Chapel. This contains a seven-light window. Passing 
round the north-eastern corner we see the Ely Chapel 


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projecting from the second bay to the west, with four-light 
windows in its eastern and western walls, and a five-light 
window on its northern face. From the fourth and fifth 
bays, counting from the east, projects a low building with a 
battlemented parapet, a door and square headed windows, 
erected to contain the hydraulic apparatus used for working 


the bellows of the organ. To the west of this is a small door- 
way with an ogee head leading into the ante chapel of the 
Derby or John the Baptist's Chapel. This is the last bay 
of the eastern division of the church. The next bay, the 
north wall of what was once St. James' Chapel, contains a 
five-light window. After two more bays, comprising the chapel 

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of the Holy Trinity, we come to the registry, and see the north 
porch projecting from the last bay but one. This bears a 
general resemblance to the south porch, save that niches take 
the place of windows on the east and west faces of the upper 
story, and that the stair turret stands on the west side at the 
angle between the porch and aisle wall. 

The following inscription may be read running round the 
porch commencing on the eastern side. 

" To the glory of God and in loving 
memory of James Craven this porch 
and registry are erected by his -children 1888." 

The west window of the outer north aisle has seven lights, 
and that of the inner aisle five. *• 

As on the south side so on the north, the tracery is not 
the same in all the windows. Those on the north side of the 
Derby Chapel and the Ely Chantry resemble each other ; the 
next is a short window above the doorway ; the next, which is 
known as the Gordon window, is entirely different ; the next 
three have tracery similar to that of the windows of the Derby 

The parapet along the north walls of the church, like that 
along the south walls, is pierced and battlemented, the design 
differing in different parts. The parapet of the Lady Chapel, 
however, is not pierced, but is simply battlemented. The 
parapet on the clerestory on both sides is a modern addition, 
and is considered by some to be no improvement on the old 
form which ran in an unbroken line from end to end of the 
church, and gave an appearance of greater length than that 
given by the present arrangement, with its line broken by 
battlements and pinnacles. The two octagonal turrets that 
rise from the east end of the clerestory walls with their 
crocketed pyramidal terminations form a pleasing feature. 

The tower, square in section, projects from the western 
extremity of the nave, and rises to the stately height of 140 
feet. The west window of the nave is surmounted on the 
outside by a richly carved ogee label ;* in the next stage we 
see the faces of the clock, and in the belfry stage above 
double windows on each face of the tower ; a pierced battle- 
mented parapet with three pinnacles at each of the angles 
and one at the middle points of each of its sides, forms a 
suitable termination to the tower. 

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We have now carefully examined the exterior of the church 
in detail. It remains only to mention the points of view 
from which it is best seen as a whole. The view from the 
roadway running up to the railway station shows the tower to 
advantage, as not only is it of considerable height itself, but 


its base on the level of the churchyard is considerably raised 
above the street. The whole of the south side, which is richer 
in variety and detail than the north, can be well seen from the 
churchyard, and the north side itself from the open space in 
front of Chetham's hospital, the play-ground of the boys who 
are educated there. 

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It has been already said that the exterior of the Cathedral 
Church at Manchester lacks somewhat of the charm that so 
many of our old cathedrals possess. There is no wide-spread- 
ing close with its smooth turf and immemorial elms, no birds 
to fly round tower and pinnacle, and break the silence of the 
home of ancient peace with their songs or cries, but ever we 
hear the scream of railway engines, the bells of tramcars, and 
the roar of the traffic along a busy thoroughfare. The sur- 
rounding buildings are not now, as in many cathedral cities, 
the residences of Dean and Canons, quaint and mediaeval, with 
stone mullioned windows and ivy-covered walls, but modern 
erections, shops, and warehouses, and hotels. And the church 
itself, destitute of transept and central tower, provided only 
with a western tower, gives us the idea of a large parish 

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church, rather than of a building associated in our mind with 
Bishop, Dean, and Canons. There is no cloister-garth with 
its surrounding walks, the old collegiate buildings are detached 
from the church and appropriated to secular purposes ; so that 
probably our first feeling is one of disappointment, but this 
feeling will vanish as soon as we have passed into its interior. 
The usual way of entrance is by the south porch; this is 
always open. The western doors are unfortunately generally 
closed — unfortunately, for the most impressive view of the 
church is to be had from beneath the tower arch looking to 
the east. It is a dimly lighted building; this is due chiefly 
to two causes : first to the fact that it is enormously wide, and 
the aisle windows are therefore far from the central nave, 
and secondly to the fact that almost all the windows both 
of aisles and clerestory are filled with painted glass, in many 
cases of a deep colour, and rendered still more impervious 
to light by the incrustation of carbon deposited on their 
outside by the perpetual smoke of the city. So dark is the 
church that in the winter months it has generally to be lit 
with gas all the day long, and even in the summer, in com- 
paratively bright weather, some gas burners will generally be 
found alight. The mist also of the exterior atmosphere finds 
its way into the building, and hangs beneath the roof, lending 
an air of mystery to the whole place, and giving rise to most 
beautiful effects when the sunlight streams through the clere- 
story windows. The tone also of the nave arcading and 
clerestory rebuilt in recent years, of warm, rose-coloured sand- 
stone, is very lovely. 

The visitor on entering the church, before examining the 
different objects in detail, should get general impressions 
of the building. The view from just inside the south porch 
showing the four rows of arcading separating the outer aisles 
from the inner, and these from the central nave, is very fine. 
The view from beneath the tower arch looking eastward is most 
impressive. Another good view is from the altar steps look- 
ing westward, especially in the early part of a bright day, when 
there is sufficient light to show the magnificent tabernacle 
work of the stalls, and the organ stands out clearly defined 
against the sunlit misty air of the upper part of the nave 
behind it. 

To see these three views of the building under favourable 

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conditions of light will well repay the visitor for a journey 
of many miles to Manchester, to say nothing of the exquisite 
detail work that now demands our attention. 

It has been already explained that the outer aisles on 
either side have been formed by throwing down the walls 
or screens that once divided these spaces into a series of 
chapels on the outside of the real nave aisles. In Continental 
churches double, aisles on the north and south side of the 
church are by no means uncommon, but instances of this 
arrangement are more rarely met with in England. The most 
familiar example is Chichester Cathedral, where double aisles 
have been formed by the inclusion of lateral chapels. 

It has been already stated that the baptistery which occu- 
pies the western end of the outer southern aisles is entirely 
modern, as also is the south porch. At one time a small 
porch called Bibby's Porch projected from the second bay 
from the west of the true south aisle, to the east of which, 
stretching right over the outer south aisle, was the Chapel of 
St. George. This occupied two bays, and projecting from it to 
the south was Brown's Chantry. To the east of St. George's 
Chapel, also occupying two bays, was the Chapel of St. 
Nicholas, the Trafford Chapel. These were the chapels on 
the south side of the nave aisle. Opposite to them, outside 
the north nave aisle, were two chapels, that of the Most 
Holy Trinity at the west, that of St. James, otherwise known 
as the Ducie Chapel, at the east end. The west wall of the 
outer nave aisle on the north side is original, so that the 
whole length of the series of chapels on this side was greater 
than that of the series on the south side. The nave and its 
twin aisles, as will be seen from what has already been said, 
consist of six bays. The eastern half of the church also 
consists of six bays, and the choir aisles, like those of the 
nave, are flanked by chapels which have fortunately re- 
mained undestroyed down to the present day, enclosed by 
their original screens. On the south side, raised three steps 
above the level of the nave and occupying three bays, was 
the Jesus Chapel, now divided into two parts, the western bay 
being used as a vestry, the two others as the Cathedral 
Library; from this a door leads into the chapter house, the 
main entrance to which is from the choir aisle. With this 
the unbroken series of building attached to the south side 

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of the church ends, but from the easternmost bay a door- 
way in a screen opens into the Fraser Chapel, built as a 
memorial to her husband, the second Bishop of Manchester, by 


Mrs. Fraser. Crossing the church by the ambulatory, passing 
the small Lady Chapel, we find the whole length of the outer 
aisle on the north side occupied by the chapel of St. John 

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the Baptist, often called the Derby Chapel. The western 
bay forms the antechapel, from which we pass into the chapel 
itself through the original oak screen. From the second bay, 
counting from the east end of this, the Ely Chapel projects. 

The reader should follow on the plan the general descrip- 
tion just given, and while doing so he will notice that the 
church is not quite regularly built, but tapers slightly towards 
the east. The eh closed choir, presbytery, and sanctuary taper 
still more, so that the east end is between three and four feet 
narrower than the west end. But this enclosed space is 
symmetrically placed in the church. The plan shows the 
very great width of the church in proportion to its length. 
The interior width of the nave and its double aisles is 114 
feet, while its length is only 85 feet ; the whole interior length 
of the church, omitting the tower at the west and the Lady 
Chapel at the east, is 172 feet. This shows that the choir 
is about the same length as the nave, and that the total length 
of nave and choir is only about one and a half times the width. 

Having now taken a cursory glance round the church, we 
will go once more over the same ground, examining it more 
in detail. We will suppose that the outer doors of- the 
West Porch are open, and we can pass through them 
from the street. We go up from the level of the pavement 
three steps and find ourselves within the porch ; on the south 
and north sides of it, doors open into two rooms used the 
one as the lecture-room of the Scholar Episcopi (or non- 
residential Theological College of the Diocese), the other as a 
schoolroom for the choir boys. A flight of eleven steps takes 
us up to a landing measuring about five feet from west to 
east, and then four more steps bring us to the level of the 
nave floor, and we enter through what were originally the west 
doors of the church, into the space below the tower. The 
ceiling of this is of fan tracery, and its side walls are panelled 
in five tiers. Passing under the tower arch and looking back, 
we notice that the tower arch with the walls on either side of it 
are original. The Baptistery is a modern addition. The 
font formerly stood in the outer aisle on the north side. The 
South Porch is also new. It is divided into two bays, each 
covered with a vault formed of eight ribs crossing each other at 
the centre, and decorated by two lierne ribs in each- of the four 
quarters. The arcade dividing the outer from the inner aisle 

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on the south side is entirely modern; the chapels which 
occupied the site of the outer aisle were formerly divided 
from each other by stone walls, and from the aisle by irregular 
arches filled with oak screens. All these were removed in 
1 8 1 5, so as to throw the area of the chapels into that of the 


church; an arcade was then built, but this was removed to 
make room for the present arcade during the restoration that 
was begun in 1872. The westernmost chantry, or Chapel 
of St. George, was founded by W. Galley in 1508. The 
next, the chapel of St. Nicholas, or the Trafford Chantry, 

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is said to have been founded long ere the present church was 
built in 1 186 by Robert de Greslet; at the south-east corner 


of this a piscina may be seen, though the altar has dis- 
appeared. Three steps and a screen divide this chantry from 

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the larger Jesus Chapel. This is separated from the south 
aisle by a beautiful wooden screen of sixteenth century date. 


This is glazed in order to make the room now used as a 
library comfortable. This chantry was founded in 1506. 
Between the Jesus Chapel and the entrance to the chapter 


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house on the south wall of the aisle are memorial tablets to 
Richard Heyrick. warden, who died in 1667, and Thomas Ogden, 
who died in 1763. The entrance to the Chapter House is 
a very beautiful piece of work. There are two doorways whose 
heads are four centred arches ; above these there are two tiers 
of panel work, all being enclosed by one large arch whose sides 
and top are decorated by six tiers of panelling on each side 
(see illustration, p. 32). The chapter house is very comfort- 
ably fitted up. There are to be seen in it several fragments of 
brasses and of other old work taken from the floor of the choir 
and of the Lady Chapel and elsewhere. 

The Fraser Chapel contains an altar cenotaph in memory 
of the second Bishop of Manchester, who died October 22nd, 
1885, at Bishop's Court, Higher Broughton, Manchester, but 
who was buried, not in his cathedral church, but in the church- 
yard of Ufton Nervet in Berkshire, a parish of which he had 
once been rector. The recumbent statue is considered to be 
a fine likeness of the late bishop. This statue was unveiled 
on July 8th, 1887. 

The tomb bears the following inscription written by the late 
Dr Vaughan, Dean of Llandaff. 

" To the beloved memory of James Fraser, D.D., Bishop ol Manchester, 
1870-85, a man of singular gifts both of nature and the spirit ; brave, 
true, devout, diligent, in labours unwearied. He won all hearts by 
opening to them his own, and so administered this great Diocese as to 
prove yet once more that the people know the voice of a good 
shepherd and will follow where he leads. " 

At the east end of the south aisle stands a marble life-size 
statue by Bailey of Thomas Fleming, who died in 1848, and a 
memorial tablet to the Rev. George Ogden, B.D., who died in 
1706. The aisle is divided from the choir by a wooden screen ; 
in the third bay from the east are iron gates leading into the 
choir. The retro-choir, about thirteen feet from east to west, 
runs between the back of the modern reredos behind the high 
altar and the beautiful mediaeval screen which stands beneath 
the arch at the entrance to the Lady Chapel. The Lady 
Chapel has modern fittings making it suitable for the celebra- 
tion of Holy Communion when the congregation is small. In 
the south wall a piscina may be noticed, and on the north side 
of the altar stands a Renaissance font of grey-veined marble 
which was formerly in use in the nave. There are marble tab- 

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lets in memory of various members of the Chetham family at the 
west ends of the north and south walls of the Lady Chapel. 


On the west wall of the arch leading into the chapel may be 
seen the rebus of Sir John Huntington, the first warden and 

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rebuilder of the church. On the north side is a man and dog 
hunting, on the south side two tuns of wine. This rebus is 
repeated in the roof of the choir. At the north-east corner of 


the north choir aisle may be seen a statue by Theed (1853) of 
Humphrey Chetham, the founder of the Hospital (i.e. school) 
and Library that bears his name. He sits, a roll in his right 

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hand, with long hair and pointed beard, a ruff round his neck, 
and a long cloak which, falling open in front, shows doublet and 
slashed trunk hose. At the bottom of the pedestal sits one of 
the boys of the hospital school, pointing with his left hand to a 
book which he holds open in his right,* on which we read the 
inscription : " He hath dispersed abroad, and given to the poor, 
and his righteousness remaineth for ever " (Ps. cxii. 9 ; Prayer- 
book version). 

An old oak screen running under five arches of the arcading 
to the north side of the aisle separates the Derby Chapel 
from the aisle. This screen is of good design, but the work- 
manship is not so good as that of the other old screens in 
the church. Near the first pier, counting from the east, is 
the altar tomb of Hugh Birley, M.P. for Manchester, with a 
recumbent figure. Here also may be seen an old oak deed 
chest. About halfway down this aisle on the south side may 
be seen a small organ built by the celebrated Father 
Smith, dated 1680; this is of the finest tone and is still fre- 
quently used. It has one manual with seven stops and pedal 
with one stop. 

Four steps lead from the outer nave aisle on the north 
side into the antechapel that stands to the west end, out- 
side the entrance to the Derby Chapel. 

This chapel is dedicated to St. John the Baptist. It was 
a private chantry built and endowed by the Stanley family, 
of which the Earls of Derby were members. Two of the 
family were closely connected with the church. One, James 
Stanley, Prebendary of St. Paul's, and archdeacon of Chester, 
held the office of warden from 148 1- 148 5, and was suc- 
ceeded by another James Stanley, whose tenure was longer, 
1 48 5- 1 509. He it was who began the building of the Derby 
Chapel. He became bishop of Ely, but when he died in 
1 5 1 5 his body was buried at Manchester, close by the screen of 
the Ely Chapel ; but " for reasons which need not be men- 
tioned here " his body was laid just by the wall, and the chapel 
was erected by his son according to his will over his grave, 
and called after the name of his diocese. This tomb still 
stands there, with its original brass and curiously inscribed 
epitaph, for which see hereafter. 

The following description is copied from a MS in Chetham's 

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" In the old or Christ's Church, Manchester, is a Chapell dedicated to 
S. John Baptist on the screen which separates it from the broad north aisle 
and over door leading from the aforesaid chapel into the aisle is an antient 
coat of arms carv'd in wood, and three old brass inscriptions setting forth 
the founders of the chapell together with y e cause of its erection. 

"The arms are those of Stanley tho much different from those born 
by that name at this day tho unquestionably of the same family with 
the present Earl of Derby, who bears 3 stags heads caboch'd on a bend 
these arms on the screen bears the stags heads in chief and 3 eagles 
claws in base this kind of bearing might possibly be to difference it 
from the elder house or grand stem of the family, a matter not unusual in 
those days. In an old manuscript I have the above arms born by the 
name of Stanley of Handford, and from this family of Handford I should 
suppose sprung S r John Stanley of Aderley Ches r which is within a few 
miles of Handford tho S r J no now bears the same arms for his paternall 
coat as the Earl of Derby. The aims impal'd with Stanley on the screen 
is first and fourth a Chevron between three mascles voided second and 
third a star with seven points the whole arms appears to be totally void of 
colouring. The helmet is very clumsy and differs much from those now 
us'd in arms. The crest or rather part of a crest for it appears to have 
had something broke from it is not now to be determin'd what it formerly 
was. What 1 take to be the motto is grav'd upon two plates of brass on 
each side the arms the half of one brass is broke way but no doubt was the 
same as the other they are engraved in the old text with these words 
Vanitas vanitatum Oia Vanitas that is Vanity of vanity all is vanity. 

On the brass plate over the door is grav'd in the same character and 
old Latin Obsecramus ut adjuvetis nos Jacobu Stanley Eliens Epis Johane 
Stanley milite et Margareta uxore ej ac paretes eor oracionibus vris apud 
Dom Jhesu expm q. hanc Capella in ej nomine et in honore Sancti Johanis 
Baptiste Fabricavimus An incarnationis illius MCCCCCXIII. Designs 
from the Originall plates may be seen in the following drawings. The 
Inscription on the long brass I take to be this in English. 

" We beseech you that you assist us James Stanley Bishop of Ely John 
Stanley Knt. and Margaret his wife and their parents with your prayers to 
y e Lord Jesus Christ who have built this chapel in his name and in honour 
of St Jn° Baptist in the year of his incarnation 1513." 

According to an old poem entitled Flodden Field S r John Stanley was 
at that great Battle fought in Sept. 1513 along with other gentlemen of 
Lancashire and Cheshire and in enumerating the Leaders says : 
Next with Sir John Stanley there yede 
The Bishop of Ely's servants bold 
Sir Lionel Percy eke did lead 
Some hundred men well tried and told. 

(Barrett MS. No. 41458, C. 4. 13.) 

These two chapels were the private property of the Earls 
of Derby, who had to keep them in repair. In the second 
half of the eighteenth century the roofs needed extensive 
repair; this was done by the thirteenth Earl of Derby in 
conjunction with the townspeople of Manchester, and the 

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Earl surrendered his rights to the chapels, handing them over 
to the parishioners on condition that he and his successors 


should no longer be held responsible for keeping them in 
repair. The Derby Chapel is now fitted with an altar at 
the east end, a font on the north side, and oak benches, 

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so that it can be used for week-day services when desired 
The Ely Chapel is not fitted in any way. 


St. James* Chapel, or the Ducie Chantry, and the Chapel 
of the Holy Trinity, which formerly occupied the east 

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and west ends of what is now the outer north aisle, and were 
founded, the former in 1507 and the latter by W. Radcliffe 
of Ordsall in 1498, have no longer any separate existence; 
the only sign of their having been chapels that remains is 
a piscina in the pier at the south east corner of St. James' 
Chapel. The arcade between the outer and inner north 
aisles originally dated from about 1500. 

The North or Craven Porch is opposite to the south 
porch and bears a strong resemblance to it. It consists of 
two bays, each vaulted in stone in the same manner as the 
bays of the south or Jardine Porch ; a door to the east side 
of the inner bay leads into the registry office. 

It now remains to examine the Central Nave and Choir. 
This church differs from most of our cathedral and abbey 
churches in having no triforium. 1 And the clerestory is 
not lofty, so that the church is rather low for its width, 2 though 
the height of the arches of the main arcade prevents this being 
felt. The roofs of the aisles are all modern, but that of the 
nave, though extensively repaired, has much of the original 
work in it, and, with the exception of a few bosses, the choir 
roof is old. All the roofs are of timber; in the nave the 
intersections of the main beams are covered by beautiful bosses 
carved out of the solid wood. On either side, at the points 
from which the main cross beams spring, is a series of angelic 
figures splendidly carved in wood : those on the south side 
playing stringed instruments, those on the north side wind 

The choir roof is more ornate ; the panels between the 
beams are filled with tracery ; the bosses here are differently 
constructed from those in the nave ; here each leaf was separ- 
ately carved and then nailed in its place. At the time of the 
restoration this roof was skilfully repaired by introducing 
new beams above the old ones and fastening the old to the 
new, with bolts. 

The pillars of the main arcade of the nave are modern work 
built in imitation of the original ones. They are light and 
graceful, and like many other pillars of fifteenth century date, 
are formed of shafts of which only half have separate capitals, 

1 A triforium in purely Perpendicular buildings is rare. 

2 The height of the central line of the roof (50 feet) is not quite double 
the span (27 feet). 

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the other mouldings running round the arch. The spaces 
between the arches are elaborately carved with heraldic 

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Towards the east end of the nave may be seen desks for the 
choir on either side, a brass eagle lectern on the south side, 
and a modern pulpit against the first pillar from the east on 
the north side (see page 54). The pulpit, the gift of the late 
Chancellor Christie and his wife, is octagonal, and six of 
its faces are carved with representations of Christ, the four 
Evangelists, and St. Paul ; of the other two sides one rests 


against the pier, and the other, on the north, forms the 
entrance from the pulpit steps. The ancient rood screen 
(see page 23) is a very beautiful piece of work. It has three 
wide openings with double doors in each ; upon it stands 
the central part of the large organ ; other parts of the organ 
occupy spaces in the north and south aisles behind the 

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stalls. The case was designed by Sir Gilbert Scott, and is 

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The present organ rebuilt by Wadsworth Brothers at the 
cost of Sir W. H. Houldsworth, Bart., 1871, has 

Four manuals CC to A . . . 58 notes 
Pedal CCC to F . . . 30 „ 

The great organ has . 13 stops 

swell . ." . . . 16 „ 

choir ...... 8 „ 

solo 5 „ 

pedal ...... 9 „ 

accessory ...... 8 „ 

and combination pedals ... 8 

If we pass on through the screen beneath the organ we 
find ourselves in the choir. This, the choir proper, as 
distinguished from the presbytery to the east of it, is some- 
times called the Radcliffe choir, for many members of this 
family were buried here, and their brasses were placed on the 
floor, but these were removed when the floor was repaved 
with tiles. On either side of us, and behind us, we see some 
of the most elaborate tabernacle work to be met with any- 
where. Some idea may be formed of the wealth of detail by 
examining the illustration on the opposite page. There are 
twelve stalls on either side, and three on each side of the 
entrance through the rood screen facing east. The stalls are 
furnished with misereres, which, in common with many others 
both in England and on the Continent, represent all manner 
of quaint subjects, monsters, animals, hunting scenes, etc. 

The Stalls date from the early part of the sixteenth century, 
and bear a strong resemblance to those in Beverley Minster 
and Ripon Cathedral. At Beverley, however, the level cornice 
above the canopies which we see at Manchester is wanting, 
except at the west end. 

The carved elbows of the stalls and the ends of the book 
desks are also worthy of careful examination, especially the 
Eagle and Child and general carving of the Dean's Stall, which 
is a marvel of beautiful workmanship, and said by high 
authorities to be unequalled. 

Between the stalls the floor is one step higher than that of 
the nave, and at the east end of the stalls there is a further 
rise of two steps as we pass into the presbytery. Here, on 
the south side> we see the bishop's throne — modern work, 
carved with a view to be in harmony with the stalls, but corn- 

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paring unfavourably with them in execution. There is a rise 
of two more steps into the sanctuary, and the altar itself is 
raised two steps higher ; this gives a good effect. Behind the 
altar is an elaborately carved wooden reredos of modern work, 
richly painted and gilt. The upper part, as will be seen from 
the illustration on p. 22, is wider than the lower; it is divided 
vertically into seven divisions, the two lateral divisions on each 
side being themselves divided into two tiers. The three 
central niches contain figures of the three patron saints, St. 
George on the north, the Blessed Virgin in the centre, and St. 
Denys on the south side. 1 Above the central figure, St. Mary, 
is another niche containing a seated figure of Christ, holding 
in His left hand an orb and cross, His right hand raised in 
the act of blessing ; above this figure is a canopy. On the top 
of the six uprights that form the vertical divisions of the 
reredos, angels stand with clasped hands. The carving on the 
smaller panels illustrates the following verses of the " Preface to 
the Sanctus " which are inscribed beneath them. 

"With angels and I archangels and I all the company I of heaven 
we laud and | magnify Thy | glorious name. | Amen." 

It will be noticed that there are no sedilia in the usual 
place on the south side of the altar, the arch being open 
where we might expect to find them, and there is no 
pulpit in the choir. Most of the services in which a sermon- 
is preached are conducted in the nave. 

Most of the windows have in recent times been filled 
with painted glass. Perhaps we may be inclined to think 
that there are too many thus filled, and that it would have 
been well if the windows of the clerestory had been left 
uncoloured. Certain it is that as there is no triforium, there 
is no place from which the clerestory windows can be 
examined; and had they been left unpainted, the church 
would have been much lighter than it is. 

A brief description must now be given of the windows. We will 
begin with the west window in the tower, proceeding eastward 
along the outer south aisle, crossing the church by the ambula- 
tory, and coming back to the west by the aisle on the north side, 
and then examining the clerestory windows of nave and choir. 

1 St. George and St. Denys, patron saints of England and France, were 
added to the dedication at the time that the church became collegiate, 
Henry V. being King of England and France. 

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The Windows. — The west window of the tower has five 
lights, and is divided by one transom. It represents the 
Ascension, and Acts of Mercy. It was given by J. C. Harter, 
and is the work of Hardman. 

The west window of the inner aisle on the south side 
has four lights, and its subject is the parable of the Good 
Samaritan. It was erected by subscription in memory of Jonas 
Craven, and was painted by Messrs. Heaton, Butler & Baynes. 

The west window of the outer south aisle, or Baptistery, 
has six lights, and represents baptism by blood, water, and 
fire, illustrated by the martyrdom of St. Stephen, the baptism 
of Christ, and the descent of the Holy Ghost at Pentecost. 
It was given by Thomas Chesters in 1892, and is the work 
of Messrs. Percy Bacon & Bros. 

The window in the westernmost bay of the outer south 
aisle has four lights, and illustrates the text "Suffer little 
children to come unto Me," and was erected as a memorial 
to W. H. Bowler (son-in-law of Thomas Chesters), who 
died in 1887. This also was painted by Percy Bacon & 

The window to the east of the porch in the Brown 
Chapel has four lights, and represents Christ healing all 
manner of sickness, and was erected in memory of John, 
William, Maria, and Henry Stevenson, and is by Wailes of 

The next window has four lights, and has for its subject 
various incidents in the life of St. John the Baptist :. 1, the 
announcement of his birth to Zacharias ; 2, his birth ; 3, his 
preaching in the wilderness; and 4, his baptism of Christ. 
This was given by Margaret Clowes in memory of the Rev. 
T. Clowes, and is by Hardman. 

The window in the fifth bay has five lights. It represents 
Christ in Glory, and was given by Catharine, Countess of 
Stamford and Warrington, in memory of her husband, the 
seventh Earl, who died in 1883. It was painted by Messrs. 
Clayton & Bell. 

The next window also has five lights, and illustrates the 
Magnificat. It was erected by public subscription in memory 
of Dean Oakley, who died in 1890. It is by Burlison & 
Grylls. ■ 

The next window is in the westernmost bay of the Jesus 

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Chapel. It has four lights. Its subject is Simeon receiving 
Christ in the temple. It was given as a memorial to Frederick 
Andrews, who died in 1890. It is by Messrs. Heaton, Butler & 

The next window, in that part of the Jesus Chapel now 
used as the cathedral library, has four lights, and represents 
Christ among the doctors; it is a memorial to James Gray, 
who died in 1871, and is by Messrs. Heaton, Butler & Baynes. 

The next window of four lights has for its subject Christ 
healing all manner of disease, and was inserted in memory 
of Jonas Craven, who died in 1894. It is by Messrs. 
Heaton, Butler & Baynes. 

There are four windows in the chapter house, all of four 
lights. The first, with figures of Sts. James, Thomas, Simon, 
and Jude, was given by Canon Gibson in 1869, and is by 
Messrs. Ward & Hughes. The next, .representing Sts. Peter, 
Mary, George, and Paul, is by Edmundson & Son, and incor- 
porates some old glass found in the clerestory windows of the 
choir. The next, with figures of Sts. Matthew, Mark, Luke, 
and John, was given by the children of Canon Wray, in 
memory of their father, who died in 1866. It is the work of 
Clayton & Bell. The last, with figures of Sts. James, Andrew, 
Philip, and Bartholomew, was given by Dean Bowers in 1869, 
and is by Ward & Hughes. 

In the bay between the chapter house and the Fraser 
Chapel is- a four-light window with eight subjects. In the 
upper row, The Transfiguration, Lazarus, Christ riding on an 
Ass, The institution of the Lord's Supper ; and in the lower, 
" This is my beloved Son," Elisha raising the Child, David, 
The offering of Isaac. This was given in 1859 by a citizen 
once a chorister. It is by Edmundson & Son. 

In the Fraser Chapel are two windows. The first, facing 
south, has four lights, and contains the glass which formerly 
occupied the window of the bay that was opened out when 
the Fraser Chapel was built. Its four subjects are : Simeon, 
The Baptism of Christ, The Miracle at Cana, and Christ 
blessing little Children. An inscription records that it was 
given in 1858 by a citizen once a chorister; it is by 
Edmundson & Son. 

The window in the east wall of this chapel has three 
lights. Its subjects are : 1, St. John ; 2, "I am He that was 

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dead and am alive again"; 3, St. Paul. It was erected as a 
memorial to Bishop Fraser by Messrs. Shrigley & Hunt. 

The east window of the south choir aisle has five lights, 
and each of these contains two subjects. 

In the upper row we see Christ in the centre, with two 
of the evangelists on either side of him. In the lower tier 
are represented: 1, The Agony in the Garden; 2, Christ bearing 
His Cross; 3, The Crucifixion; 4, The Angels announcing the 
Resurrection; 5, The Ascension. This was given by G. Pilking- 
ton, and is by Wailes of Newcastle. 

In the Lady Chapel there are two windows, each of two 
lights in the north and south walls, and two, of four lights 
each, in the east wall. 

Beginning with the westernmost window in the south side, 
we find a representation of the descent of the Holy Ghost 
on the day of Pentecost, and an inscription which states that 
the window is a memorial to "John Allen bonorum hujus 
ecclesiae custos, " who died in 186 1. 

The next window contains a representation of Christ among 
the Doctors. It is a memorial to Samuel Bulteel, who died in 

The next window in the east wall represents the Cruci- 
fixion of Christ and the two robbers, and was erected to 
commemorate the fact that the Lady Chapel was once the 
property of the Hoare family. 

The other window in this wall shows the visit of the 
Magi, and was given by J. H. Chetham in 1884, in memory 
of Humphrey Chetham, the great benefactor to Manchester, 
who was born in 1580 and died in 1653. 

The two windows in the north wall represent the Annuncia- 
tion and Salutation respectively, and were inserted as memorials 
to Edith Mary Romilly, daughter of Dean Cowie, who died 
in 1883 ; it was given by the Dean; and to Elizabeth Sharp, 
who died in 1881. The latter was given by S. Wm., and 
Elizabeth Bulteel. 

All the windows in the Lady Chapel are by Moore of 

The five-light window at the east end of the north choir 
aisle illustrates the text beginning "I was hungry," etc. It 
was given by G. Pilkington as a memorial to Humphrey 
Chetham. It is by Wailes of Newcastle. 


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The east window of the Derby Chapel has seven lights, 
each containing two subjects. The upper tier are: i, The 
Magi; 2, The flight into Egypt; 3 and 5, Angels; 4, Christ; 
6, Christ blessing Children; 7, Christ among the Doctors. 

In the lower tier the three central subjects are hidden by 
the reredos erected in recent years over the altar. Of the 
four visible, the first is the raising of Jairus' daughter; 3, 
Christ setting a Child in the midst; 6, Suffer little Children 
to come unto Me ; 7, The feeding of the Five Thousand. It 
is by Edmundson & Son of Manchester. 

The easternmost window in the north wall has four lights. 
The subjects are: St. Mary, "Why weepest thou?" and St. 
John. This window was inserted as a memorial to George 
Hull Bowers, D.D., the second De#n of Manchester, who died 
in 1872. It is by Burlison & Grylls. 

There are three windows in the Ely Chantry. That facing 
north has five lights, the other two four; the central light 
of the north window contains the figure of Bishop Stanley 
wearing his mitre and holding his pastoral staff. 

The next window to the west contains in its four lights 
representation of four incidents in the life of Jacob: His 
dream, Rachel tending her sheep, Jacob watering them, and 
Jacob's journey into Egypt. This window is a memorial to 
William Newall, who died in 1851. It is by Ward & Hughes. 

The next window, also of four lights, represents Christ 
cleansing the leper, raising the daughter of Jairus, blessing 
children, and restoring sight to Bartimaeus. This was inserted 
in memory of Robert Barnes, who died in 187 1. It is by 
Clayton & Bell. 

The next window — the last within the screen of the Derby 
Chapel — represents : 1. Jacob blessing Ephraim and Manasseh 
(Gen. xlviii. 14) ; 2, The end of Job (Job xlii. 17); 3, Simeon 
blessing Christ (Luke ii. 27-29); 4, The great multitude in 
Heaven (Rev, vii. 9.) It is a memorial window to Thomas 
Broadbent, who died in 1875. It was given by his daughter, 
Elizabeth Boyd Garfit, the wife of Thomas Garfit, M.P. for 
Bristol, and is by Hardman. 

In the antechapel is a four light window. The subjects are 
the Good Shepherd teaching the young and healing the sick. 
It was given by James Chadwick, churchwarden, in 1863, and 
is by Ward & Hughes. 

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The easternmost window in the nave, in what was once 
the Ducie Chapel, has five lights, and was erected by C. J. 
Scholfield in 1888 as a memorial to Major-General Gordon, 

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who was killed at Khartoum in] 1888. In the centre light the 
General is represented with his^hand on the head of a native 
boy ; in the other lights we see- native women and children 

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expressing their gratitude to him for his work on their behalf; 
and in the outer lights and above the heads of the human 
figures are angels. 

This window is by Messrs. Wilson & Whitehouse of 
London, and from the interest of its subject attracts much 

The next window to the west has four lights, each of which 
contains two subjects : in the upper tier, Sts. Stephen, Paul, 
Barnabas, and Philip ; in the lower, the stoning of St. Stephen, 
the Conversion of Saul, St. Paul and Barnabas, and St. Paul 
before Agrippa. It was given by Stephen Smith in memory 
of his two sisters, Lucinda and Marie, who died in 1881 
and 1883 respectively. This window is the work of Messrs. 
Burlison & Grylls. 

The next window contains, in two tiers, representations of 
various Old and New Testament characters. It was inserted as 
a memorial to Samuel and Elizabeth Pickup. It is by Messrs. 
Clayton &*Bell. 

The next window also has two subjects in each of its four 
lights : the upper one, Feeding the hungry, etc. ; the lower, the 
story of the Good Samaritan. This was given in memory of 
James Pickup, who died in 1868. It is by Messrs. Clayton & 

The next bay opens into the north porch and does not 
contain any window. Between this and the west wall is a four- 
light window containing representations of eight incidents in 
the life of Joseph : 1, His dream ; 2, his coat dipped in blood ; 
3, his imprisonment ; 4, his interpretation of the butler's and 
baker's dreams ; 5, his interpretation of Pharaoh's dreams ; 6, his 
honour in Egypt; 7, his turning aside from his brothers to 
weep ; 8, the presentation of Jacob to Pharaoh. This window 
was presented by J. Beard in 1887, and is by Hardman. 

The west window of the outer north aisle has seven lights. 
The subject is the Ascension. It is a memorial to William Rose, 
superintendent of the Manchester Fire Brigade, who died in 
1884, and is the work of Messrs. Clayton & Bell. 

The window at the west end of the inner north aisle has 
two tiers of subjects; in the heads are angels playing on 
musical instruments. It was given as a memorial by the 
widow and children of Samuel Fletcher, who died in 1863, and 
is by Hardman. 

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The windows of the clerestory contain five lights; in the 
north side all are painted, on the south side only the four west- 
ern ones. 

The subjects are : — 

On the north side : i, Aaron sacrificing on the day of Atone- 
ment ; given by R. B. M. Lingard Mo'nk. It was painted by 
Messrs. Clayton & Bell. 

2. Joshua at the fall of Jericho ; given by Sir J. W. Maclure, 
Bart., M.P. It is by Messrs. Clayton & Bell. 

3. David praising God in the tabernacle ; given by G. Benton. 
By Burlison & Grylls. 

4. Solomon praising God ; given by Susanna Woodcock in 
memory of Henry Woodcock. By Gibbs of London. 

5. The ascent of. Elijah; given by Sir W. Cunliffe Brooks, 
Bart. Painted by Messrs. Clayton & Bell. 

6. Malachi pointing out the promised messenger ; given by 
Edward and Henry Charlewood. It was painted by Messrs. 
Burlison & Grylls. 

On the south side : — 

1. Moses with the tables of the Law ; given by James Chad- 

2. Miriam dancing and singing ; given by William Hatton. 

3. Joseph and his brethren; given by Lord Egerton of 

4. Abraham offering Isaac ; given by the Earl of Ellesmere. 
These four windows are all the work of Messrs. Heaton, 

Butler & Baynes. 

In the choir clerestory on the north side only the second 
from the west is painted ; it represents Christ raising the dead, 
and is by Clayton & Bell. 

On the south side, the first and third from the west are 
painted. The former represents Christ and Nicodemus ; it was 
the gift of Canon Gibson, and is by Hardman. The other, 
representing the presentation of Christ in the Temple, was given 
by Canon Gibson, and is by Ward & Hughes. 

The east window of the choir, a short wide window of seven 
lights, representing the Crucifixion, was given by W. Andrews 
in 1856, and is by Hardman. 

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Before 1422 the church was purely parochial, and was 
under rectors, the names of thirteen of whom have come 
down to us. 

Ranulphus de Welling is the first of whom we have any 
record. Albert de Neville's name is also preserved, but 
we do not know the dates of their appointment; all we 
know is that the former lived before the commencement of 
the thirteenth century. With the appointment of Peter 
Greslet in 1261, the unbroken list begins. 

1284 William de Marchia succeeded him. He became 
Bishop of Bath and Wells in 1292 or 1293. Here 
he obtained a great reputation for saintly life, 
and after his death miracles were worked at his 
tomb, persons suffering from toothache resorting 
to it. He was for some time Treasurer of England 
under Edward I. 
1292 Walter de Langton was appointed rector of Man- 
chester, and also Treasurer of England. In 1296 
he was promoted to the Bishopric of Lichfield, 
to which diocese Manchester then belonged. At 
Lichfield he distinguished himself as builder of 
the Lady Chapel and Palace. He retained the 
rectory of Manchester until 1299, when he was 
succeeded by his grandson. 
1 30 1 Geoffrey de Stoke became rector, and was succeeded 
in 1 3 13 by John de Guerden, whose name appears 
in several other forms Verdun and Everden. He 
became Dean of St Paul's, London, in 1323. 
Another name, that of John de Arden, occurs 
about this time among the rectors of Manchester, 
but the date of his appointment is not known. 
1323 Adam de South wick became rector. 
J 3 2 7 J°hn de Clan don. 
135 1 Thomas de Wyke; and finally in 
1373 Thomas de la Warre. 

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In 1422 the church became collegiate, when Henry V. 
granted a charter to Thomas, Lord de la Warre, Rector 
of Manchester, and Lord of the Manor "Ecclesiam de 
Mancestre in ecclesiam collegeatam erigere," and from 
this date the title of Rector was exchanged for that of 

The following is a complete list of the wardens, with the 
dates of their appointments: — 

1422. John Huntington, B.D. (rector of Ashton-under- 
Lyne); he is noteworthy as the builder of much 
of the church which we see to-day. 
1459. John Booth, LL.B., archdeacon of Redmore, 
formerly treasurer of the cathedral church at 
1465. Ralph Langley, LL.D., rector of Prestwich, the 

rebuilder of the nave. 
1481. James Stanley (1), D.D., Prebendary of St Paul's and 

archdeacon of Chester. 
1485. James Stanley (2), M.A., D.C.L. He founded the 
Chapel of St. John the Baptist, built the entrance 
to the chapter house, and in connection with 
Richard Beck, a Manchester merchant, erected 
the choir stalls and canopies. He became 
Bishop of Ely in 1509, and is buried in the 
Ely Chantry at Manchester. 
1509. Robert Cliff, B.D., LL.D. 
15 1 5. Richard Alday. 
15 18. George West. 
1535. George Collyer, M.A. 

1557. Laurence Vaux, B.B., chaplain to the Bishop of 


1558. William Bird, M.A. 

1570. Thomas Herle, chaplain to Queen Elizabeth. 

r 578- John Walton, B.D. He was appointed Bishop of 
Exeter in 1579. 

1579. William Chadderton, D.D., consecrated Bishop of 
Chester in 1579. Manchester by this time had 
become part of the new see of Chester, and 
Chadderton retained his wardenship along with 
the higher office, but he resigned it when he was 
translated to the see of Lincoln in 1595. 

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1595. John Dee, M.A., a layman and a celebrated mathe- 
matician, alchemist, astrologer, and necromancer, 
who professed to see visions in crystal globes, and 
was much consulted by many, among them by the 
Queen, to forecast future events, held the office 
of warden for some years, but retired in 1608, 
and died in poverty at Mortlake, at the age of 81. 

1608. Richard Murray, D.D., Rector of Stopford, and Dean 
of St. Buryan's in Cornwall. 

1636. Richard Heyrick, M.A. He was expelled in 1646, 
but reinstated in his office in 1660. His memorial 
tablet may be seen on the wall of the south aisle, 
dated 1667. 

1667. Nicholas Stratford, D.D. He resigned in 1684, and 
five years after this was consecrated Bishop of 

1684. Richard Wroe, D.D., Prebendary of Chester. 

1 718. Samuel Peploe ( 1 ), D.D. He was consecrated Bishop 
of Chester in 1726, and ruled that see till 1752. 
He retained the wardenship, together with the 
bishopric, until 1738. 

1738. Samuel Peploe (2), LL.D. He was Chancellor of 
Chester, and Archdeacon of Richmond, Yorkshire. 

1 781. Richard Assheton, D.D. 

1800. Thomas Black burne, LL.D. 

1823. Thomas Calvert, D.D., rector of Wilmslow. 

1840. The Hon. William Herbert, D.D., LL.D. When the 
the diocese of Manchester was formed out of that 
of Chester in 1847, the warden was raised to the 
higher rank of Dean, and hence Dr. Herbert was 
last warden and first Dean, but he did not hold 
the latter office long. 
The following is a list of the Deans : — 

1847. The Hon. William Herbert, D.D., LL.D. 

1847. George Hull Bowers, D.D. 

1872. Benjamin Morgan Cowie, D.D. In 1884 he became 
Dean of Exeter, a post he held until he died in 

1884. John Oakley, D.D. He had been Dean of Carlisle 
from 1881-1884. 

1890. Edward Craig Maclure, D.D., the present Dean. 

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The present cathedral staff consists of the Dean, four 
residentiary Canons, twenty-four honorary Canons, two minor 
Canons, two Clerks (in orders), an organist, four singing men, 
and four singing boys on the foundation, to whom others are 
added by subscription. 

The relation of the Dean of Manchester to the Rectory 
is defined by the Parish of Manchester Division Act, 1850, 
which states that " Such Part or Residue of the said Parish of 
Manchester as shall remain after severance therefrom of any Parts 
or Portions thereof, shall be, and be deemed to be for all Ecclesi- 
astical Purposes, the Parish of Manchester ; and the Dean of 
Manchester for the time being shall, upon Institution and 
Installation into his Deanery, have the cure of souls therein, 
and shall be assisted in such cure by the Chaplains or Minor 
Canons of the said Cathedral or Collegiate Church, to be here- 
after appointed, who, in all matters connected with the 
Spiritual Duties of the said Parish, shall be subject to, and act 
under his directions ; and the said Dean shall have all rights 
and powers in reference to the performance of the services 
of the said church, as the Parish Church of Manchester, 
as fully and effectually as if he were Rector of the same, 
subject nevertheless to any rights belonging to or duties imposed 
on the Canons and Minor Canons or Chaplains of the said 
Cathedral or Collegiate Church, in respect of the performance 
of the services thereof prescribed by the recited Letters 

The list of the churchwardens of the parish church from 
1422 to 1595, and from 1663 t0 tne present time, three for 
each year, is in existence. 

The diocese of Manchester has but a short history, as it 
has had an independent existence for little more than half a 

Until 1 541 Manchester was part of the great see of Lich- 
field. In that year Henry VIII. made a new diocese of 
Chester, by taking the archdeaconry of Chester from the 
diocese of Lichfield, and the archdeaconry of Richmond from 
that of York. 

The see of Chester then included the counties of Chester, 
Lancaster, and portions of Cumberland, Westmorland, York, 
Flint, and Denbigh. 

In 1836 the archdeaconry of Richmond was assigned to 

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the new see of Ripon, and the part of Lancashire known as 
Furness, together with these parts of Westmorland and 
Cumberland above mentioned, were added to the diocese of 

In 1847 the new see of Manchester was formed from the 
diocese of Chester. 

' The diocese of Manchester lies within the county of 
Lancaster, but does not embrace the whole county, part of 
which forms the see of Liverpool, while a small part of it 
belongs to that of Carlisle. 

It consists of three archdeaconries : — Manchester, Lancaster, 
and Blackburn. 

The total number of benefices in the diocese in the year 
1900 was 550, of beneficed clergy, 525, and of assistant curates 
about 360. 

The cathedral church is calculated to afford accommodation 
for 2000 persons. 

Since the foundation of the see it has been presided over 
by three bishops. 

The first was the Right Rev. James Prince Lee, D.D., 
F.R.S., for many years headmaster of King Edward's School, 
Birmingham, and a distinguished scholar. He was elected in 
1847, and consecrated in the first month of the following 
year by the Archbishop of York and the Bishops of 
Chester and Worcester. He died in 1869 at Mauldeth 
Hall, Heaton Mersey, and was buried in Heaton Mersey 

He was succeeded by the Right Rev. James Fraser, 
B.D., who when at Oxford had gained the Ireland Scholar- 
ship, and became a Fellow of Oriel College. He was a man of 
great intellectual power, of kindly manner, and won the respect 
and confidence not only of Churchmen, but of members of 
all denominations, especially of the mill hands of his populous 
diocese. He was nominated to the see in January 1890, and 
consecrated in March of the same year. He died 22nd 
October 1885 at Manchester, and is buried in the churchyard 
of Ufton Nervet, Berks. 

The present bishop, the Right Rev. James Moorhouse, 
D.D., was translated from the see of Melbourne to that of 
Manchester in 1886. 

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Total length over all, exterior, .... 

Width, . 

Length of Nave and Choir, interior, 

Width of Nave exclusive of Projections, interior, . 

Distance from Rood Screen to Screen of Lady Chapel, 

Length and breadth of Tower, exterior exclusive of buttresses, 

Length of Lady Chapel, E. to W. , interior, 

Width of Lady Chapel, N. to S., interior, 

Width of Nave, ...... 

Width of inner Nave Aisles, .... 

Width of outer North Aisle of Nave, 
Width of outer South Aisle of Nave, 
Projection South Porch beyond Wall of aisle, exclusive of but 

tresses, ...... 

Projecting of North Porch, beyond walls of aisle, exclusive of but 

tresses, ....... 

Width of South Porch, interior .... 

Width of North Porch, interior, . . . 

Diameter of Chapter House interior, 

Height of Roof, interior, ..... 

Height of Tower, ...... 

Area, about 18,000 sq. ft. 















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chetham's hospital from the south-east. 


As we stand on the north side of the cathedral and look 
to the north, our eyes rest upon a wide gravelled court- 
yard beyond a low wall, backed up by a range of mediaeval- 
looking buildings. These were the domestic buildings of 
the College, and are now used partly for Chetham's Free 
Library, partly for the school known as Chetham's Hospital. 
The endowment and other sources of income provide for the 
board and education of a hundred boys. They receive a sound 
elementary education, and are instructed in technical and 
manual work. The school is carried on under the Board of 
Education, and is typical of this education at its best. The 
religious instruction is in accordance with the tenets of 
the Established Church, and much care is taken to train 


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64 chetham's hospital and library. 

the boys not only in intellectual and manual pursuits, but 
in morals and manners. A boy once placed on the founda- 
tion of Humphrey Chetham has a successful career assured 
to him, unless he forfeits his chances by subsequent folly on 
his own part. The boys who show the greatest intellectual 
power can be passed on to the Manchester Grammar School, 
and thence to Owens College, while the feoffees of the hospital 
have no difficulty in finding good places in the business 
houses of Manchester for the rest. To have been educated 
at Chetham's Hospital is a great recommendation to any boy. 
The boys still wear the picturesque costume of the sixteenth 
century— caps, bands, long-skirted dark blue coats, knee- 
breeches, stockings, and shoes adorned with buckles. The 
visitor to the Hospital will probably be greeted by one of 
these boys, who will ask if he wishes to see the buildings. 
The boy will, if the answer is in the affirmative, take the 
visitor to the library, where, on payment of sixpence, a 
ticket will be handed to him, franking him for the day, 
and the boy will conduct him over the whole of the buildings, 
pointing out the past and present uses to which each part 
of them was or is put. 

Before we proceed to describe the building a few words 
must be said about its history. 

Its site was once occupied by the "summer camp" of 
Roman legionaries, and when the Romans passed away 
from the island, it is highly probable that the English occu- 
pants of the country used it as a place of abode. The first 
authentic notice of its occupation by any person whose name 
has come down to us, dates from 1182, when Robert, the 
fifth Baron Greslet, kept court here. Thomas, the eighth 
baron, granted the citizens of Manchester their first charter 
in 1 30 1, signing and sealing the charter here. He was the 
last male in the direct line of descent, and on his death 
the property passed to John De la Warre, who was a descend- 
ant of the Greslets or Gresleys in the female line. One 
of his descendants, Thomas, as has been already mentioned, 
became rector of Manchester, who before his death applied 
to King Henry V. for a charter to enable him to collegiate 
the church. He bestowed on it lands to increase the endow- 
ment, and gave his baronial hall to the newly founded 
college of priests to be used as their residence. All this 

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chetham's hospital and library. 


may be read in the grant made in the first year of Henry 
VI. Certain alterations were made in the buildings, to fit 


them for the new use to which they were to be put, and 
from 1422 to 1549 they were occupied by warden after 


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warden, who, assisted by the Fellows, performed the services 
in the adjoining church, looked after the sick and poor, and 
ministered generally to the inhabitants of the parish of Man- 
chester. For some reason the College was not suppressed in 
the reign of Henry VI II., when the revenues of monasteries, 
small and great, were seized by the king; but in the first 
year of Edward VI. it was disendowed, and in the third 
year of the reign it was granted to Edward Stanley, third 
Earl of Derby. He used it as a town house. Henry Stanley, 
the next earl, in the reign of Elizabeth obtained a charter 
from the Queen, re-endowing the College, and it once more 
became the abode of the wardens, now priests of the 
reformed Church. Puring the civil wars the warden was 
expelled (1646), and the buildings seized by the Parliament. 
They were let to a certain Joseph Werden, who sublet the 
refectory to the Presl ) terians, to be used by them as a 
meeting-house. The Independents made use of a barn in 
the enclosure for a similar purpose. 

Lieut.-Col. the Rev. John Wigan applied for the reversion 
of this property, " part of y e estate of the late Earl of Derby, 
and part of y e jointure of y e Countess Dowager already 

Humphrey Chetham also had his eye upon this property, 
wishing to obtain it so that he might carry out a project 
formed long before to found a school and home for boys. The 
survey of the property made at this time describes it as con- 
sisting of " Y e large building called y c College in Manchester, 
consisting of many rooms, with two Darnes, one gate house, 
verie much decay'd, one parcell of ground formerly an orchard, 
and one garden, now in y e possession of Joseph Werden gent., 
who pays for y e same, for y e use of the Common wealth, ten 
pounds yearly. There is likewise one other room in ye said 
College reserved and made use of for publique meetings of 
X'sian conscientious people." 

Humphrey Chetham did not live to see the school founded ; 
but in his will, made three years before his death, which took 
place in 1653, he appointed trustees to carry out his purpose. 
They, in accordance with his instructions, bought " y e great 
house with buildings, court, gardens, and appurtenances, 
called ye Colledge or the Colledge House," obtaining it for 
the sum of ^500. 

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chetham's hospital and library. 67 

On August 5, 1658, the building was formally dedicated to 
its new use, and Hallworth, chief assistant to Heyrick, the 
expelled warden, who, as stated in Chapter IV., was afterwards 
reinstated, in his speech on this occasion, told the history of 
the building, and concluded by saying, " Henceforth the said 
house could fitly and justly be named by no other name than 
by the name of Mr. Chetham's Hospital," and by that name 
it is known at the present day. 

At the time of the Restoration the Stanleys claimed the 
property of which they had been dispossessed by the Parlia- 
ment, but made no difficulty about regranting to the feoffees 
that part of it occupied by the new School and Library. For 
the Library as well as the School had been already founded, 
since after making sufficient provision for the maintenance of 
the Hospital, the feoffees had money in hand which they spent 
in the purchase of books, thus forming the nucleus of the first 
free library in England. To this collection books have been 
added by gift, bequest, and purchase, so that the library now 
contains about 60,000 volumes. The books can be consulted 
free of charge during certain hours of the day, but are not allowed 
to be removed from the building. The general public, however, 
does not make much use of the library, as it does not contain 
the light and ephemeral literature that appeals to modern 
taste; but the student who desires to read up some special 
subject will find many valuable books and manuscripts to 
aid him in his work. Among the rare books is a copy of the 
historical compilations of Matthew Paris, with marginal 
corrections in the author's handwriting. 

There is much matter to be found on these shelves dealing 
with the antiquities and history of Lancashire and Cheshire. 
Canon Raine bequeathed a fine series of Lancashire manu- 
scripts ; besides these may be seen a collection of broadsides, 
formed by Mr. T. O. Halliwell-Phillipps, and the library of John 
Byrom. In the last named collection is the final draft of the 
well-known hymn, " Christians, awake ; salute the happy morn." 
Among the other books there are some fine specimens of Cax- 
ton's printing. 

We leave the churchyard, cross the street that skirts it to 
the north, and pass through a small doorway in the wall at 
the opposite side of the street, and so enter the playground 
of Chetham's Hospital. On our left hand as we make our 

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way to the original building, we pass the modern school- 
room, which stands by itself. This, like many other buildings 
in Manchester, was designed by A. Waterhouse, R.A. The 
main building runs east and west, with projecting wings at 
either end. Near the eastern wing we notice the old entrance 


gateway, and the modern staircase leading up to what was 
the "hospitium" or guest-house. This has been converted 
into a dormitory for the boys. The most interesting part 
of the College is to be found in the western wing, of which 
an illustration is given, p. 63. The three windows crossed 

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chetham's hospital and library. 


by transoms are those of the hall ; the lower windows to the 
left of these belong to the audit room, the upper to the 
warden's private room, now the reading-room of the library. 
The building to the extreme left contains the library on the 
upper floor, and orifices on the lower. 

There is a long corridor, shown in the illustration below, 
running from east and west of the building ; it can be entered 


by a door at its eastern end not shown in the illustration on 
p. 63. After entering this, as we proceed towards the west 
we pass on the right hand the fine kitchen ; it has an open 
timbered roof about 35 feet from floor to ridge, and measures 
29 feet in length and 17 in width; beyond this, on the 
same side, are two doors giving entrance to the cellar, where 
the warden and Fellows kept their wine, the buttery or rather 

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chetham's hospital and library. 

butlery. Opposite this, on the left hand side, is the Hall; 
its north end is partially closed by massive screens of black 
oak. It has windows on the east and west. One of those 


on the west gives light to a staircase with Jacobean balusters, 
which, starting in a direction parallel to the west wall of 
the hall, turns round and gives access to the upper story. 

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As we still pass westward we come to the cloister on the 
left hand, and the old infirmary on the right; and a door 
still further on leads out into a garden, where the fish pond 
was formerly situated; in this the fish required for Fridays 
and other days of abstinence were kept. Caught in other 
water — the streams of Irwell and Irk probably — they were 
brought here and stored so that they could always be caught 
without difficulty when required for the table. 

The cloister is small and has only three walks, the one to 
the north forming part of the corridor which has been just 
described ; the one to the west is terminated at its south end 
by an iron gate ; and the walk on the south leads to, and is 
terminated by the entrance to the audit room. From the 
west walk (illustration, p. 83) an archway leads into the 
cloister itself. This is a very secluded spot, and the walls 
show signs of great age. This cloister has one peculiarity : 
the walks already described have other walks or corridors 
over them. Over the south walk is a corridor leading by 
what was St. Mary's Chapel into the warden's room ; the 
corridor over the west walk opened out into what was once 
the dormitory, now filled with bookcases ; the walk over the 
long eastern corridor below gave access to the old refectory, 
which has now been divided into living-rooms for the governor 
and the librarian. 

The long straight line of building between the eastern and 
western wing contained the old school, the brew house, and 
the bakery; the upper story, used formerly for guests, has 
been converted into a dormitory for the boys ; this is the 
most ancient part of the hospital. 

The reader, from the sketch just given, will understand 
the general arrangement of the building, various parts of 
which will now be described in more detail. 

We will begin with the Hall. This measures 43 feet from 
north to south, 24 from east to west; its walls are 22 feet 
in height, and the distance from the floor to the ridge of the 
open timber roof is 35 feet. 

At the south end is the dais, behind this the wall is 
panelled; on the west side near the dais is a recess shown 
in the illustration on page 72, and on the same side of the 
hall, further north, and in the centre of the wall, is the " Ingle- 
nook," as it is called. 

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chetham's hospital and library. 


This Ingle-nook did not originally form part of the hall. 
It is said that at one time it was a barn, or place for storing 
grain for use in the baronial buildings. 

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chetham's hospital and library. 73 

The hall was in all probability warmed, according to the usual 
custom, by a brazier standing on the centre of the floor, the 
smoke from which gathered under the high pitched roof, 
blackening beams and rafters, and finally escaped through a 
spire or turret rising from the ridge of the roof furnished with 
louvre boards. The fireplace was at some subsequent time 
removed to the west side of the room, and afterwards placed 
inside the ingle-nook, first at the back of it, then at the north- 
eastern corner. 

It will be seen from the illustration that this recess was at 
one time entered through an arch, but the sides of this were 
afterwards cut away and a flat lintel, composed of two 
enormous stones, was inserted; the space between this and the 
arch was then filled in with masonry; at the same time, no 
doubt, the interior space was covered with a plaster ceiling 
at a height of about six feet from the floor; this has been 
recently removed, and the roof vaulted with stone. The recess 
is lighted from the back with windows, and provided with seats, 
and has an open fireplace. The ingle-nook is a picturesque 
addition to the hall, and forms no doubt a very cosy corner 
when on a cold day the fire is blazing in the grate ; but as a 
means of warming the hall the present arrangement is mani- 
festly far inferior to the old plan of having an open fire in the 
centre of the floor of the hall. 

On the wall above this recess may be seen a bust of the 
founder, with crossed swords on either side of it, and a 
flintlock hung below it. The illustrations show that the 
walls are built of large-size squared stones, and are not 
covered with plaster. Across the end of the hall, cutting off 
the western part of it to form the main passage spoken of 
above, is a battlemented screen. This is peculiar in that 
it is not a continuous screen furnished with doorways for 
entrance, and does not rise to the level of the roof, but 
consists of three detached pieces, one resting against the east, 
one against the west wall, and one standing in the middle, 
each rising to the height of about nine feet. Thus two en- 
trances, each about five feet wide, are left. Here, as in other 
parts of the building, the improvements of the nineteenth 
century have found their way, and the mediaeval walls of 
the old hall are lighted with electric lamps — a most con- 
venient and safe addition, but striking one, at first, as out 

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chetham's hospital and library. 

of harmony with the surroundings. Sundry portraits adorn 
the walls, the floor is neatly sanded, and the room is kept 
scrupulously clean; an air of refinement is added to it by 
vases of fresh flowers placed on the table. In this hall the 
boys of the Hospital assemble at stated hours for prayers 
and meals. 

The next part to be examined is the cloister court. This is a 
very small enclosure, surrounded by somewhat high walls. 
Admission to it is obtained from the west walk through the 


archway cut in one of the windows, shown in the illustration. 
The curious form of the glass in the windows is worthy 
of note ; the pavement of the cloister-garth is formed 
of cobblestones, and towards the south end may be seen 
the top of the college well. The cloister is not rectangular, 
the line of the eastern side being broken by sundry pro- 

As we leave the cloister, we examine the walks to the south 
and west. The latter (see illustration, p. 83) is terminated at 

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chetham's hospital and library. 


its south end by a wrought iron gate through which we get a 
glimpse of the outside view and the entrance to the library. 
The roof is nearly flat, with massive oaken beams. Several 
doors may be seen on the western side opening into cells — 
the living-rooms of the clergy connected with the college. As 
we turn round the corner and pass into the south walk, we 


see before us the door of the audit room. The oaken 
ceiling of this room is of fifteenth century date ; the walls 
up to a certain height are wainscoted ; above this they are 
covered with a plaster frieze. Here may be seen what is 
known as the "Founder's Chair," although it is of far earlier 
date than Chetham's time — earlier, indeed, than the date of 

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7 6 

chetham's hospital and library. 

the conversion of the baron's residence into a college in the 
fifteenth century. 

Leaving this room, we pass through the two cloister walks 
already described, and proceed towards the hall until on 
the right hand we see a staircase with balusters of oak, black 


from age. We mount this, and when we reach the top find 
ourselves in the upper corridor that runs along the north 
side of the cloister-garth. This is lit by windows looking 
into the cloister, and is covered with a wooden ceiling. Just 
at the head of the staircase is the doorway leading into the 

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chetham's hospital and library. 


private rooms of the governor, with exquisite oak fittings ; 
on the north side of this corridor are doors similar to those 

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chetham's library, formerly the dormitory. 

that we noticed in the corridor below, opposite to the hall; 
these lead into the librarian's rooms; beyond these, to the 

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78 chetham's hospital and library. 

west, stands a beautiful Tudor table of carved oak. At the 
west end of the corridor is an iron studded door. The carvings 
over the doorway on the west side should not be passed by 
unnoticed (see p. 65). The corridor over the west walk of the 
cloister is filled with bookcases plentifully supplied with books. 

Parallel to this runs the old dormitory of the College, a room 
with a fine timber roof lighted from above ; on the west side 
of this are a number of compartments formed of tall book- 
cases, and entered from the corridor by open-work doors. 
At the north end of the corridor is a window filled with painted 
glass, one light of which represents St. Martin of Tours dividing 
his cloak with a beggar, and the other Eutychus falling out of 
the window. 

At the south end of this corridor we find a staircase which 
leads from the ground floor close to the main entrance to 
the library, and is, in fact, the way by which readers usually 
enter it. There is a room with a similar timber roof running 
along the south side of the building parallel to the corridor 
above the south walk of the cloister. This was once a chapel 
dedicated to St. Mary, and now, like the dormitory, is filled 
with bookcases; but an oak altar rail, dating from the 
middle of the sixteenth century, with double spiral rails, may 
still be seen here. 

At the east end of the south corridor is a door leading into a 
beautiful room, now used as the reading room ; formerly it 
was the warden's room, and many a man well known in history 
has sat within its walls. Here Sir Walter Raleigh and the 
courtiers of his day were entertained by the warden, Dr Dee, 
of whom mention was made in the last chapter, — a wizard 
as he was then thought to be, whom even the Queen did not 
hesitate to consult when she wished to know the future. 

This room, like many others in this building, has an open 
timber roof and a cornice, dating from the time of the foun- 
dation of the College in the days of Henry V. The walls are 
wainscoted up to the level of the spring of the roof which 
spans the room from east to west. 

In the centre of the north side of this room is a fire- 
place. This wall is wainscoted up to the same height as the 
other walls, and above the oak panelling it is profusely decor- 
ated, as will be seen from the illustrations, with scrolls and 
other patterns. This decoration was done in the early years 

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chetham's hospital and library. 8 1 

of the reign of Charles II., after the College had been con- 
verted into Chetham's Hospital. In the centre of the room 
is a handsome oval oak table, with a number of chairs to 
match ; against the south wall stands a fifteenth century com- 
munion table, and against the north wall to the left of the 
fireplace, a handsome sideboard of carved oak. This was 
made up of portions of two pieces of old furniture, namely, 
the top of a bookcase once given by Humphrey Chetham 
to Walmsley Church, near Bolton-le-Moors, still bearing an 
inscription : " The gift of Humphrey Chetham Esquire, 
^SSj" and a fifteenth century bedstead once used by the Pre- 
tender when sleeping at Hulton Park in Lancashire. This 
sideboard was presented to the College by a member of the 
Hulton family, who was one of the Chetham feoffees. Round 
the walls are several portraits. From the east side of the 
room there is a projecting bay lighted by three windows 
and furnished with seats and a square writing table with sloping 
sides, to which students can take the book from which they 
wish to make extracts. The enrichments of the ceiling of the 
bay are of plaster, but the rest of the vault is stone. All the 
floors of this upper story are of oak, well polished by the feet 
of many generations. The furniture of the reading room har- 
monizes well with the room itself. The windows are placed 
under widely splayed, obtusely pointed four centred arches. On 
the sill of one stands a statuette in bronze of Humphrey Chetham 
and one of the boys of his school, similar to the marble 
statue already described as standing at the east end of , the 
north choir aisle of the cathedral church. At the north-; 
West corner of the room is a door which the visitor might 
easily overlook, but which gives access to a most interesting 
chamber. This was at one time the minstrels' gallery opening 
out into the hall, when in the time of the Greslets and the 
De le Warres, the baron, his guests and retainers feasted 
merrily there, while the harpers twanged their strings and 
sang of deeds of daring and war and victory. When the 
building passed into ecclesiastical hands in 1422 the arches 
opening into the hall were walled up, and the minstrels' 
gallery was converted into a scriptorium ; two small openings 
were, however, left in the wall from which the warden passing 
out of his own room into the scriptorium might see what 
was being done in the hall below. 


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chetham's hospital and library. 

Leaving the warden's room we may descend by the stair- 
case at the south-west corner of the building, and before quit- 
ting this part of the hospital altogether, make a closer exa- 
mination of the wrought iron gate at the south end of the west 
walk of the cloister. On it we see embossed in brass, the 
arms of the founder and below the arms, the motto, "Quod 
tuum tene," "Hold thine own." 

The part of the building used as the boys' dormitories 
has 'been internally refitted in modern times, and so has lost 


somewhat of its archaeological interest ; but the building, 
taken as a whole, is a very valuable relic of mediaeval times. 
Even if there were nothing older than Chetham's day, it 
would be well worth study; but of course it is of much 
earlier date, and we see a building which has been used for 
three distinct purposes at different times of its history : 
first as a baron's dwelling-place, then as the abode of one 
of those religious bodies differing in many points from the 
regular monastic orders known as colleges of clergy, and 

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chetham's hospital and library. 


finally converted into one of those educational establish- 
ments which sprang up into vigorous existence in the days 
succeeding the dissolution of the monasteries. It is especially 
interesting to note how many features of the life led by the 
boys at the time of the foundation are still preserved at this 


hospital. Modern improvements have been judiciously intro- 
duced into the management of this educational foundation ; 
there has been no unnecessary reckless sweeping away of 
what is old and picturesque, and yet, at the same time, the 
character of the education given has been brought well up 

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84 chetham's hospital and library. 

to modern requirements, fulfilling literally the conditions laid 
down by the founder, who directed that "Ye boys shall 
be taught ye reading, ye writing, ye summes, and all kinds 
of ye ingenuitie." 

It is a matter of congratulation that this ancient building 
has been preserved from falling into ruin and being used 
as a quarry of ready-hewn stone, a fate that overtook so 
many of the religious houses of the country when the 
monastic bodies were expelled; and also that by the wise 
regulations made for the admission of visitors, the place is 
easily seen, and yet is preserved from all chance of injury. 

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Aisles, the outer, 27. 
Archdeaconries, the, 59. 

Baptistery, the, 29. 
Bibby's Porch, 27. 
Bishop's Throne, 45. 
Bishops of Manchester, the, 59. 
Brown's Chantry, 27. 
Bust of Humphrey Chetham, the, 

Gordon window, the, 51. 
Gresley family, the, 5, 31, 64. 
I Guest-House, the, 68. 

Henry VIII., 7. 
Hey rick, Richard, warden, 7, 57. 
' Hulme Chapel, the, 6, 17. 
Huntington, John, warden, 6, 35, 

Jesus Chapel, the, 6, 17, 29, 33. 

Chapel of the Holy Trinity, 

6, 40. 
Chapter, the, 58. 
Chapter House, the, 10, 17, 34. 
Chetham's Hospital and Library, 6, 

63 ; cloister, the, 71, 74 ; hall, I 

the, 71 ; library, the, 67 ; reading- 1 Manchester, See of, 8, 58. 

room, the, 78 ; kitchen, the, 69. j Mary I., 7, 
Chetham, Humphrey, 36, 66. 
Choir, the, 6, 41, 45. 
College, the, 5, 7, 66 , 67 ; dormi- 
tory, the, 78 ; founder's chair, 

the, 75 ; minstrels' gallery, the, 

Craven Porch, 19, 41. 

Deans of Manchester, the, 57, 

Dedication, the, 4. 
Derby Chapel, the, 6, 9, 19, 37-39. 
Dimensions of the Cathedral, 60. 

Edward VI.. 7. 

Ely Chapel, the, 6, 17, 19, 37. 

Lady Chapel, the, 6, 17, 19, 34. 
Langley, Ralph, warden, 6, 56. 
Lee, Bishop Prince, 59. 

Moorhouse, Bishop, 59. 
Nave, the central, 41. 

Organ, the, 45. 
Organ, the small, 9, 37. 

Eraser, Bishop, 34, 59. 

Eraser Chapel, the, 5, 10, 17, 28, 34. Stalls, the, 6, 45. 


Parapets, 19. 

Porch, the west, 5, 10, 13, 29; the 

south, 5, 10, 15, 29 ; the north, 

5, 10, 41. 
Pulpit, the, 43. 

Rectors, the, 55. 
Reredos, the, 46. 
Rood- Screen, the, 43. 

Smith, Father, 37. 

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Stanley family, the, 7, 66. 

Stanley, James, Bishop of Ely, 6 ; 

warden, 56. 
St. John the Baptist's Chapel, 29, 

37, 38 (see Derby Chapel). 
St. James' Chapel (Ducie), 6, 27, 

St. George's .Chapel, 6, 27, 30. 

St. Nicholas' Chapel, 17, 27, 30. 
Sundial, 17. 

Tower, the western, 9, 19. 
TrafTord Chapel, 27, 30. 

Wardens, the, 56, 57. 
Windows, the, 7, 24, 47-53. 

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Bell's Cathedral Series. 

Profusely Illustrated. Cloth, crown 8vo, is. 6d. net each. 


ENGLISH CATHEDRALS. An Itinerary and Description. Compiled 
by J. G. Gilchrist, A.M., M.D. Revised and edited with an Intro, 
on Cathedral Architecture by Rev. T. Perkins, M.A., F.R.A.S. 

BRISTOL. By H. J. L. J. Masse, M.A. 

CANTERBURY. By Hartley Withers. 3rd Edition, revised. 

CARLISLE. By C. K. Eley. 

CHESTER. By Charles .Hiatt. 2nd Edition, revised. 

CHICHESTER. By H. C. Corlette, A.R.I.B.A. 

DURHAM. By J. E. Bygate, A.R.C.A. 2nd Edition. 

ELY. By Rev. W. D. Sweeting, M.A. 

EXETER. By Percy Addleshaw, B.A. 2nd Edition. 

GLOUCESTER. By H. J. L. J. Masse, M.A. 2nd Edition. 

HEREFORD. By A. Hugh Fisher, A.R.E. 2nd Edition, revised. 

LICHFIELD. By A. B. Clifton. 2nd Edition, revised. 

LINCOLN. By A. F. Kendrick, B.A. 2nd Edition, revised. 

MANCHESTER. By the Rev. T. Perkins, M.A., F.R.A.S. 

NORWICH. By C. H. B. Quennell. 2nd Edition. 

OXFORD. By Rev. Percy Dearmer, M.A. 2nd Edition, revised. 

PETERBOROUGH. By Rev. W. D. Sweeting, M.A. 2nd Edition. 

RIPON. By Cecil Hallet, B.A. 

ROCHESTER. By G. H. Palmer, B.A. 2nd Edition. 

ST. DAVID'S. By Philip Robson, A.R.I.B.A. 

ST. PAUL'S. By Rev. Arthur Dimock, M.A. 2nd Edition. 

SALISBURY. By Gleeson White. 2nd Edition, revised. 

SOUTHWELL. By Rev. Arthur Dimock, M.A. 2nd Edition, revised. 

WELLS. By Rev. Percy Dearmer, M.A. 2nd Edition, revised. 

WINCHESTER. By P. W. Sergeant. 2nd Edition, revised. 

WORCESTER. By Edward F. Strange. 

YORK. By A. Clutton Brock. 2nd Edition, revised. 


ST. ALBANS. By Rev. W. D. Sweeting, M.A. 

ST. ASAPH and BANGOR. By P. B. Ironside Bax. 

GLASGOW. By P. Macgregor Chalmers, I.A., F.S.A.(Scot.). 

LLANDAFF. By Herbert Prior. 

Uniform with above Series. IS. 66. net each. 

Routledge, M.A., F.S.A. 24 Illustrations. 
BEVERLEY MINSTER. By Charles Hiatt. 47 Illustrations. 

Rev. T. Perkins, M.A., F.R.A.S. 65 Illustrations. 

T. L. T« Massis, M.A. 44 Illustrations. 

AVON CHURCH. By Rev. T. Perkins, M.A. 

Bell's Handbooks to Continental Churches. 

Profusely Illustrated. Crow?i &vo, cloth, 2S. 6d. net each. 
CHARTRES : The Cathedral and Other Churches. By H. J. L. J. 

Masse, M.A. [Ready. 

ROUEN: The Cathedral and Other Churches. By the Rev. T. 

Perkins, M.A. [Ready. 

AMIENS. Bv the Rev. T. Perkins, M.A., F.R.A.S. [Ready. 

PARIS (NOT RE-DAME«). By Charles Hiatt. [Preparing. 


1.02 — R. P . — 10,000. 

Opinions of the Press. 

*'For the purpose at which they aim they are admirably done, and 
there are few visitants to any of our noble shrines who will not enjoy their 
visit the better* for being furnished with one of these delightful books, 
which can be slipped into the pocket and carried with ease, and is yet 
distinct and legible. ... A volume such as that on Canterbury is exactly 
what we want, and on our next visit we hope to have it with us. It is 
thoroughly helpful, and the views of the fair city and its noble cathedral 
are beautiful. Both volumes, moreover, will serve more than a temporary 
purpose, and are trustworthy as well as delightful." — Notes and Queries. 

44 We have so frequently in these columns urged the want of cheap, 
well -illustrated, and well -written handbooks to our cathedrals, to take 
the place of the out-of-date publications of local booksellers, that we are 
glad to hear that they have been taken in hand by Messrs George Bell 
ik Sons." — St. James's Gazette. 

*' The volumes are handy in size, moderate in price, well illustrated, and 
written in a scholarly spirit. The history of cathedral and city is in- 
telligently set forth and accompanied by a descriptive survey of the 
" uilding in all its detail. The illustrations are copious and well selected, 
nd the series bids fair to become an indispensable companion to the 
athedral tourist in England." — Times. 

"They are nicely produced in good type, on good paper, and contain 
numerous illustrations, are well written, and very cheap. We should 

lagine architects and students of architecture will be sure to buy the 

ries as they appear, for they contain in brief much valuable information. " 
-British Architect. 

" Bell's * Cathedral Series,' so admirably edited, is more than a descrip- 
tion of the various English cathedrals. It will be a valuable historical 

cord, and a work of much service also to the architect. The illustrations 

: well selected, and in many cases not mere bald architectural drawings 
but reproductions of exquisite stone fancies, touched in their treatment by 
"tncy and guided by art."-— Star. 

" Each of them contains exactly that amount of information which the 
intelligent visitor, who is not a specialist, will wish to have. The dis- 
position of the various parts is judiciously proportioned, and the style is 
very readable. The illustrations supply a further important feature ; they 
are both numerous and good. A series which cannot fail to be welcomed 
by all who are interested in the ecclesiastical buildings of England." — 
Glasgow Herald. 

"Those who, either for purposes of professional study or for a cultured 
recreation, find it expedient to ' do ' the English cathedrals will welcome 
the beginning of Bell's ' Cathedral Series.' This set of books is an 
attempt to consult, more closely, and in greater detail than the usual 
guide-books do, the needs of visitors to the cathedral towns. The series 
cannot but prove markedly successful. In each book a business-like 
description is given of the fabric of the church to which the volume 
relates, and an interesting history 01 the relative diocese. The books are 
plentifully illustrated, and are thus made attractive as well as instructive. 
They cannot but prove welcome to all classes of readers interested either 
in English Church history or in ecclesiastical architecture." — Scotsman. 

"They have nothing in common with the almost invariably wretched 
local guides save portability, and their only competitors in the quality and 
quantity of their contents are very expensive and mostly rare works, each 
of a size that suggests a packing-case rather than a coat-pocket. The 
* Cathedral Series ' are important compilations concerning history, archi- 
tecture, and biography, and quite popular enough for such as take any 
sincere interest in their subjects." — Sketch. 


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